Suicide in Islam

AL-Quran: 4:029 “O believers! devour not each other's substance in mutual frivolities; unless there be a trafficking among you by your own consent: and commit not suicide: - of a truth God is merciful to you.”

ALLAH swt has rejected the idea of suicide because it is He who decides for life and death. Life is a gift as well as it is entrusted to us by ALLAH swt. if we try to take it  means it will be a breach of trust and giving the gift of ALLAH swt back to Him which is nothing but a grave sin.

ALLAH swt says in many places in Quran that He does not let people suffer more than what they can take i.e. whatever hardships come; they are only as much as one can bear not more than that. Also when hardships come, they are only test and trial of ALLAH. When one cries and curses himself and his life he is actually failing himself in the test of ALLAH. Such a person can never win anything and even if happiness comes his way, he will always remain unhappy.

Muhammad s.a.w.w also rejected the death by suicide and said that such a person will remain in hell fire because he never regarded his life as a trust of ALLAH on him. Below are given some ahadith to show what actually a person earns by escaping his fate.

Bukhari Volume 8, Book 73, Number 73:

Narrated Thabit bin Ad-Dahhak:

(who was one of the companions who gave the pledge of allegiance to the Prophet underneath the tree (Al-Hudaibiya)) Allah's Apostle said, "Whoever swears by a religion other than Islam (i.e. if somebody swears by saying that he is a non-Muslim e.g., a Jew or a Christian, etc.) in case he is telling a lie, he is really so if his oath is false, and a person is not bound to fulfill a vow about a thing which he does not possess. And if somebody commits suicide with anything in this world, he will be tortured with that very thing on the Day of Resurrection; And if somebody curses a believer, then his sin will be as if he murdered him; And whoever accuses a believer of Kufr (disbelief), then it is as if he killed him."

Similarly, in battle field ALLAH’s apostle s.a.w.w saw a man and said that he was in hell fire. Even thought he fought bravely, to the surprise of the companions, he committed suicide because the wounds he received during fight were causing him pain. Though the pain was too much but he should have held himself to see the reward attached with those wounds and that pain.

Bukhari Volume 8, Book 77, Number 603:
Narrated Abu Huraira:
We witnessed along with Allah's Apostle the Khaibar (campaign). Allah's Apostle told his companions about a man who claimed to be a Muslim, "This man is from the people of the Fire." When the battle started, the man fought very bravely and received a great number of wounds and got crippled. On that, a man from among the companions of the Prophet came and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Do you know what the man you described as of the people of the Fire has done? He has fought very bravely for Allah's Cause and he has received many wounds." The Prophet said, "But he is indeed one of the people of the Fire." Some of the Muslims were about to have some doubt about that statement. So while the man was in that state, the pain caused by the wounds troubled him so much that he put his hand into his quiver and took out an arrow and committed suicide with it. Off went some men from among the Muslims to Allah's Apostle and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Allah has made your statement true. So-and-so has committed suicide." Allah's Apostle said, "O Bilal! Get up and announce in public: None will enter Paradise but a believer, and Allah may support this religion (Islam) with a wicked man."

Thus, a person who takes his life has earned nothing but an eternal pain which will be more than what he was facing when he was alive. By committing suicide the committer shows that he does not believe in ALLAH and he does not believe in the prayers and he does not believe in anything said by ALLAH and His messenger s.a.w.w. this is why, suicide is haram.
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