Cursing Others in View of Islam

A very common habit is many people is to curse others. Some people are so used to of cursing that they cannot complete a sentence with adding curses into it. Is cursing allowed in islam? There are different point of views and there are conditions in different situations. Before going into that, let us first see what does cursing mean.

The arabic word for cursing is La'nah, or La'n. The meaning of curse is to cast out far from goodness or being cast away from Allah swt. So, when some one is cursed, these two meanings are applied. The very meaning of this word sheds some light into this matter. But there are some people who have been cursed by Allah swt and who are known as evil doers. So cursing these people and beings in permissible. Like satan. Allah swt cursed satan, means, he was casted away from good and from Allah swt. It is mentioned in Quran;
[004:118] Allah cursed (Shaitan), and (in response) he said, “I will lure away a large number of Your servants (as my followers).”
Allah swt cursed shaitan and casted him away from all the goodness, so in return he said that he will try his best to keep men away from Allah swt. Which explains the meaning of this word. Similarly, Allah swt has cursed people who are pledge breakers, who are idolaters, who commit shirk and do wrong. Similarly, Allah swt has cursed the people from among jews who changed the book or who used wrong words for Allah swt, the following verses explain this;
[004:046] (Oh prophet), among the Jews are some, who (when they come to visit you) change words out of context. (They use pun and play upon words. They pretend to say, ‘we heard and we obeyed’, and ‘wait, we did not hear’. Instead, with a twist of their tongue, they make it sound (as if they said), “We heard and we disobeyed”, and “Listen, may you go deaf!” and ‘Raina’ _ (an insult in Hebrew). Thus, they slander the (true) faith. It would have been much better for them and more upright, had they said, “We heard and we obey” and “Listen to us, and be patient with us”. Because of their disbelief, Allah has cursed them! Little is what they believe!
[005:064] The Jews say, “Allah’s hands are shackled.” On the contrary, their (own) hands are chained and restrained; and accursed are they for what they say. In fact, His hands are unimpeded and outstretched; He dispenses (His bounties) as He wills. The fact is, what your Lord has revealed to you has rather increased the (attitude of) rebellion and disbelief in most of them. (Therefore), We have instilled hatred and hostility among them till the day of resurrection. Whenever they foment the flames of war, Allah snuffs them out. They (always) strive to spread corruption in the world. Allah does not like those who spread corruption! 
[005:078] The disbelievers of the children of Israel were cursed by the tongue of David, and of Jesus son of Mary. This is because they (disobeyed and) strayed beyond the bounds.
The verse mentioned above tells us that other prophets also cursed those who disbelieved and did wrong. Thus, it is permissible to curse those who are already cursed and it is also permissible to curse the evil doers in general. And Allah swt knows the best. Ibn Muflih said in al-Adaab al-Shar’iyyah (1/203) that “It is permissible to curse the kuffaar in general.” which means not in particular except in the case mentioned above. He also said that;Ibn Muflih said that, (1/214): “It is permissible to curse those concerning whom there is a text stating that they are cursed, but there is no sin involved if one does not do this.”

Then comes the case where some evil doer  concerned. Some scholars say that it is not permissible to curse any one in particular at all. While some say that it is not permissible to curse a muslim but in case of a kafir, it is permissible while a third view is that it is permissible in all cases. The scholars who do not permit cursing anyone in particular, whether muslim or kafir, quote the following evidences;

1- Abd-Allaah ibn Umar reported that he heard the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), when he raised his head from ruko’ in the final rak’ah of Fajr prayer and said: “O Allah, curse So and so, and So and so, and So and so,” after he had said, “Sami’a Allaahu li man hamdih, Rabbana wa laka’l-hamd.” Then Allah revealed the words ;

“Not for you (O Muhammad, but for Allah) is the decision; whether He turns in mercy to (pardons) them or punishes them; verily, they are the Zalimoon (polytheists, disobedient and wrongdoers)”
[Aal ‘Imraan 3:128]

(Bukhari (4070))

2- Umar ra reported that there was a man at the time of the Messenger of Allah pbuh whose name was ‘Abd-Allaah, but his nickname was Himar (donkey), and he used to make the Messenger of Allaah (pbuh) laugh. The Prophet (pbuh) had had him flogged for drinking, then he was brought one day and he commanded that he be flogged, and a man who was there said, “O Allah, curse him, how often he is brought [for this reason]!” But the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Do not curse him, for by Allah what I a know about him is that he loves Allah and His Messenger.”

Bukhari (6780)

Thus, from the above ahadith, it is clear that once cannot in particular curse any one because it is the decision of Allah swt to punish or bless some one. According to the prominent scholars, one cannot curse a particular person for his sins, and specifically not a muslim evil doer. But one can curse in general those who do evil, without mentioning any one's name in particular. Because, the blessing and mercy of Allah swt is never far. And Allah swt has all the knowledge.
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