Coming to the topic, the Golden age of Islam that we talk today starts from the coming of Prophet Muhammad saww. Muhammad saww was undoubtedly the most amazing and influential leader and personality of all times as described by many historians. With it's progressive nature, islam encouraged muslims to look forward and explore the world to discover and invent more and more.
Historians say that islamic golden age started from 7th century to 14th century when muslims built great empires and progressed with great pace. This was the time period when engineers, doctors, architects, writers, historians, agriculturists, and experts from almost every discipline contributed to almost all of the known realms of knowledge. Baghdad was the epicentre of knowledge. It is said that there was a House of Wisdom built in baghdad where experts and men of knowledge from all parts of world would come. This was the place where almost all of the work was translated into Arabic by many muslims and non muslim scholars and experts.
One of the major inventions of muslims from which world is still benefiting is the invention of paper. It was muslims who did not only improve paper making but also made it cheap. In the battel of talas which was fought in year 751, some chinese were captured and from them it was learnt how to make paper. Remember, chinese mastered the art of paper making from silk and they never shared this art with anyone. Similarly, the idea of a flying machine was also did not originated in the minds of wright brothers, but it was a muslim in ottoman empire, who first took his solo flight from a minorite. The car making industry was not an idea of non muslims, it was muslims who thought of this first. The first helicopter prototype and its working diagram was also made by a muslim engineer.
In the field of weaponry, it was muslims who made machines to be used in war. The catapults are muslim invention. Similarly, it was muslims who made the first missiles. And it is the same technology which is being used even today. Not only weapons but the strategy of winning a war was also the domain of muslims. This is why almost all the wars fought by muslims against non muslims were won by muslims.
The modern day industry which is attributed to english men as aftermath of 1929 economic crisis, was actually a market strategy introduced by muslims. The very concept of a market itself was developed further by muslims.
The field of astronomy was mastered by no one but muslims. How the stars move, how the sun moves, what are the patterns of this universe, this was observed and introduced by muslims. Earth was not stationary, this was muslim discovery whereas, the christian churches killed the man who said earth was not stationary.
Medicine is another field which was mastered by muslims. The first ever doctors were muslims. They did not only invented medicines but also showed the world that humans could be cut open and joined back, alive. So basically, muslims were the first surgeons.
All and much more was muslim the muslim legacy. Alas, today it is the same muslims who depend totally on non muslim world for new ideas. And it is the non muslim world who took all the was introduced by muslims and excelled and progressed beyond bounds. It was a short Introduction of Islamic Golden Age.